Shapes or objects arranged in a rectangle are called an array. Egg boxes or muffin trays are good examples of arrays. Teachers use these to help children to 'see' multiplication. For example, 4 rows of muffins in a tray times 3, equals 12 muffins.
Chunking is sometimes used to calculate division. Using multiples of the number that the total has to be divided by breaks down the calculation into sizeable 'chunks' that are subtracted from the total. For example, in 12 ÷ 3 = 4, you 'chunk' into 3s to find the answer, 4.
This means using of simple lists, tables and graphs to present information.
Factor families are made up of numbers that are related in multiplication and division. For example, the numbers 5, 8 and 40. You can multiply two of the numbers together to get the third number: 8 x 5 = 40. You can switch the order of the two numbers multiplied above to equal the third number again. In maths, this is known as the commutative property of multiplication: 5 × 8 = 40, 8 x 5 = 40. Similarly you can divide one number by the other and equal the third number: 40 ÷ 8 = 5.
Schools sometimes use the grid method to teach multiplication. For example, to work out 35 × 8 using the grid method, you set the numbers out in a grid:
You then multiply the numbers and add them together to find the total:
A number square is a visual image used in almost all classrooms to help children grasp the concept of number and place value.
Number bonds are pairs which make up a total. The number bonds for seven, for example, are 3 + 4, 2 + 5, 1 + 6 and 0 + 7. Children will practise remembering these at schools. Help them practise at home.
A number line is a visual image used in almost all classrooms to help children grasp the basic number relationships. Children will use a number line to count forwards and backwards, in, for example, 1s, 2s and 10s depending on the scale of the number line.
Mental maths is essentially the ability to calculate mentally, i.e. in your head without writing anything down. Learning things such as number bonds, number patterns, doubles and multiplication tables facts are important mental maths skills.
This means being able to match one object to one other object or person. Children need to learn this in order to be able to count. This can be practised in a number of different play situations, such as laying the table, or setting out a tea party. For example, each person at the table needs 'one' cup.
Partitioning a number means to expand the number. For example, 58 is partitioned into 50 and 8. It is often used to break down numbers when multiplying or dividing larger numbers to make the calculation easier. For example, 58 × 2 can be broken down into 50 × 2 = 100 and 8 × 2 = 16, giving an answer of 116.
The value of a digit depends on its place within a number. This is its place value and it is the basis of our entire number system. For example, in 378 there are 8 units (or ones), 7 tens and 3 hundreds.
A sequence is a set of things (usually numbers) that are in an order. Each number in the sequence is called a term. To find missing terms in a sequence, first you need to find the rule behind the sequence. For example, in the sequence '2 4 6 8' the rule is to add two to the previous number. The next number in the sequence would be '10'.
shape, space and measure
This term is used in curriculum documents and refers to work done with shapes, spatial awareness, (e.g. volume and area) and measurements (e.g. centimetres, metres, litres).
A word problem that requires two ‘steps’ in order to be solved is a two-step problem. For example, I have £6.50 to spend. If I buy two magazines priced at £1.95 each, how much money will I have left over? This requires two steps because we need to first add £1.95 and £1.95 to each other, and then take away this total from £6.50. (see word problems)
using and applying mathematics
We use maths in everyday life, drawing upon our maths knowledge and applying it, for example to calculate how much wallpaper we need to buy when redecorating. This is known as 'using and applying' our maths skills in everyday life.
A word problem is a problem written in everyday language that requires maths to find the answer. Children will work with word problems frequently. For example, oranges cost 69p a kilo. I pay for a kilo of oranges with a £1 coin. How much change will I get?