# Jargon buster: 'Data handling' to 'grid method'

#### A | B–C | D–G | H–L | M | N–O | P | Q–R | S | T–Z

**A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z**

### D

#### Dash –

A dash can introduce further information and can be used instead of a colon, a comma or, occasionally, brackets. After the dash, there may be a list or a main or subordinate clause.

For example:The fire spread quickly–I was scared. We catch the bus–the blue one–at 3.15pm at the station.

#### Data handling

Using simple lists, tables and graphs to present information.

#### Decodable books

Books which have been carefully written, using a gradual introduction of new letters and sounds, so that children can practise their developing reading skills.

#### Decoding

To read a word by saying the sounds then joining, or blending, those sounds together to form the word.

#### Denominator

The bottom number of a fraction is called the denominator. The denominator tells us how many equal parts the quantity or shape has been divided into.

For example:In ½, the denominator is 2.

#### Determiner

A determiner goes in front of a noun and its adjectives to help to tell you which person or thing the sentence is about, or how much or how many of them there are.

For example:Thelittle green bird peckedonejuicy apple and ate it as he sat on a branch.

#### Digraph

A digraph is a sound made up of two letters together such as ‘ch’ or ‘ee’ or ‘ll’. See our phonics made easy page for more information about learning to read wtih phonics.

#### Direct speech

When people’s exact words are written down in inverted commas, this is called direct speech.

For example:“I’m beginning to understand,” he said.

#### Division

Division is sharing, grouping or separating a number into equal parts. Children use lots of different techniques to divide; take a look at our Division Youtube playlist for detailed guidance.

**Short division and long division:** The process of dividing a smaller number into a larger number, one digit at a time, starting on the left. This means working from the largest to the smallest place value, effectively rounding the final digits of the large number at each step. Short division involves 'carrying' numbers between place values, whereas long division involves writing down the answer to each step, so is more useful for dividing by larger numbers.

**Video: How to do short division**

**Video: How to do long division**

**Chunking:** Chunking is sometimes used as a way of estimating or checking division calculations. Using multiples of the number that the total has to be divided by breaks down the calculation into sizeable 'chunks' that are subtracted from the total. A first step in a calculation such as 615 ÷ 20 could involve subtracting 'chunks' of multiples of 20, one step at a time.

For example:615 – 200 – 200 – 200 = 15, so the answer to 615 ÷ 20 must be 30 (multiply 10 × 3 steps), plus a remainder.

**Video: How to do division by chunking**

#### Dyslexia

A specific learning difficulty which mainly affects the development of literacy and language-related skills. For further information, visit www.bdadyslexia.org.uk.

### E

#### Ellipsis

When one or more words are missed out because it is obvious what is meant.

For example:We’re off to the park. I can post your letter. [‘On the way to the park’ has been left out.]

Ellipsis also refers to three dots meaning that a word has been missed out or a sentence has not been finished – for instance, to suggest tension.

For example:The door handle turned, a cough was heard, and…

#### Exception words

In some English words, the spelling of the word doesn’t appear to fit with the phonemes that children have been taught so far. These words are taught as whole words rather than as a combination of sounds.

Common exception words include *the*, *go*, *said*, *my*, *he*.

Common exception words are also sometimes known as 'red words' or 'tricky words'.

#### Exclamation

An exclamation is something you say or shout that shows you are very happy, angry, or surprised. In writing you use an exclamation mark after an exclamation.

For example:Oh dear!

#### Exclamation mark !

An exclamation mark comes at the end of an exclamation. It shows that something is being exclaimed, or said with a lot of feeling.

For example:I’m so late!Hurrah!It’s a goal!No!

An exclamation mark can also come at the end of a command.

For example:No!Run!Stop it!

#### EYFS

The Early Years Foundation Stage sets standards for the learning, development and care of children from birth to five years old.

### F

#### Factor

A factor is a whole number that will divide exactly into another number.

For example:1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12 are all factors of 12.

#### Factor pairs

Numbers that multiply together to make a particular number.

For example:The numbers 5 and 8 are factor pairs of 40.

You can multiply the factor pair, 5 and 8, together to get the larger number: 5 × 8 = 40.

You can switch the order that you multiply the factor pairs and you will always end up with the same number. In maths, this is known as the commutative property of multiplication (for example, 8 × 5 = 40 and 5 × 8 = 40). Similarly, you can divide the larger number by one of the factor pair to result in the other number (for example, 40 ÷ 8 = 5 and 40 ÷ 5 = 8).

#### Financial education

An emphasis on numeracy skills, using money and working with percentages.

#### Flashcards

Cards to use in games to help children practise recognising, at speed, a letter, group of letters, words and/or pictures.

#### Formal written methods

The standard procedures used for calculations that cannot easily be solved mentally. These include:

**Column addition and column subtraction:**The process of writing numbers one above the other and then calculating each column in turn, beginning with the units column and working upwards in place value.**Short multiplication and long multiplication:**The process of multiplying two numbers by writing the numbers vertically, then multiplying the larger number by each digit of the smaller number, starting from the units column and then working upwards in place value. Short multiplication is suitable for multiplying a large number by a single-digit number, whereas long multiplication involves writing down the answers to each step, so is more useful for multiplying two large numbers.**Short division and long division:**The process of dividing a smaller number into a larger number, one digit at a time, starting on the left. This means working from the largest to the smallest place value, effectively rounding the final digits of the large number at each step. Short division involves 'carrying' numbers between place values, whereas long division involves writing down the answer to each step, so is more useful for dividing by larger numbers.

**Video: How to do short division**

**Video: How to do long division**

#### Fraction

A fraction is an equal part of a whole, like ½ (one half) or ⅔ (two thirds).

For example:If you had ½ of a cherry pie, the pie would be cut into two equal pieces, and you would get one piece.

If you had ⅔ of a cherry pie, the pie would be cut into three equal pieces, and you would get two pieces.

**Numerator:** The top number of a fraction is called the numerator. The numerator tells us how many equal parts there are.

For example:In ½, the numerator is 1.

**Denominator:** The bottom number of a fraction is called the denominator. The denominator tells us how many equal parts the quantity or shape has been divided into.

For example:In ½, the denominator is 2.

**Unit fraction:** A unit fraction is a fraction which has 1 as its numerator.

For example:½ is a unit fraction, because the numerator is 1.

**Non-unit fraction:** A non-unit fraction is a fraction where the numerator is greater than 1.

For example:⅔ is a non-unit fraction, because the numerator is 2.

**Improper fraction:** An improper fraction is a fraction with a numerator bigger than its denominator. This means the fraction is greater than 1.

For example:3/2 is an improper fraction, because its numerator (3) is bigger than its denominator (2).

**Mixed number:** A mixed number is another way of showing an improper fraction, by mixing a whole number and a proper fraction.

For example:7/3 (an improper fraction) can also be represented as 2 ⅓ (a mixed number).

**Video: What are fractions?**

**Activity:**
Paper fractions (Age 5–6)

#### Fred Talk

To say the individual sounds that make up a word in the Read Write Inc. Phonics reading programme. Elsewhere sometimes called Robot Talk or Sound Talk.

#### Fronted adverbials

Fronted adverbials are adverbials placed at the beginning of a sentence. There is usually a comma after a fronted adverbial. Watch our short animation for more information.

**Video: What are fronted adverbials?**

#### Full stop .

A full stop comes at the end of a sentence. It shows that a sentence is complete and finished.

For example:It is a full sentence.I am the tallest in my class.

#### Future

There are several different ways to talk about the future in English:

The verb 'will' followed by the infinitive of the verb.

For example:Iwill leavenext week.

The verb 'will' followed by 'be' and the present participle.

For example:Iwill be leavingnext week.

The present progressive of the verb 'go' followed by 'to' and the verb.

For example:Iam going to leavenext week.

The present progressive of the verb.

For example:Iam leavingnext week.

The present tense of the verb.

For example:Ileavenext week

### G

#### Grid method

Schools sometimes use the grid method as a way of visualising multiplication, as part of formal calculations. For example, to work out 35 × 8 using the grid method, you set the numbers out in a grid:

You then multiply the numbers and add them together to find the total:

#### Group reading

Similar to guided reading, but children take it in turns to read aloud from the same book whilst the teacher listens and supports.

#### Guided reading

About six children, grouped by reading ability, read aloud from the same book at the same time whilst the teacher listens in and draws out teaching points. At junior levels children may read a book, or part of it, away from the session and then focus on particular aspects of understanding in the session.

#### A | B–C | D–G | H–L | M | N–O | P | Q–R | S | T–Z

**A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z**